doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00170.x, Lubchenco, J., and Grorud-Colvert, K. (2015). Acknowledging the fact that MPA effectiveness is not static, this assessment corresponds to a specific time period for which we had data and/or personal experience. Thus, the adoption of standardized metrics for social factors is a prerequisite for identifying how these factors truly affect MPA effectiveness and for developing guidance to decision-makers on how to improve MPA planning. Resour. The aims of MPAs often include ecological, social, economic, cultural, and institutional objectives (Fox et al., 2012). Conversely, failure was defined as “not accomplishing an aim or purpose.” Thus, an MPA would be a failure if its implementation and/or management were insufficient, inappropriate or neglected. Science — What makes a marine protected area effective? Marine protected areas range in size from Marae Moana, a two-million-square-kilometer zone in the South Pacific, to a tiny 0.4-hectare section of British Columbia’s Echo Bay Marine Provincial Park. A lack of compliance, and consequently illegal activities within the area, were commonly noted as causing the failure of MPAs to achieve ecological objectives. 4 examples of successful Marine Protected Areas © PJ Stephenson / WWF In Mozambique, where about 40% of the population lives on the coast, Quirimbas National Park has established fish sanctuaries to protect spawning grounds and restore fish populations. Given our case-studies span many countries, socio-ecological systems, and biogeographic regions, we needed to establish a common definition by which to benchmark the success or failure of an MPA. SG coordinated this effort and wrote the first draft of the paper, JM and MM produced the figures, all authors provided questionnaire input, edited and contributed with text. Such approaches could assist MPA managers to optimize enforcement strategies and encourage compliance. Human dimensions of marine protected areas. *Correspondence: Sylvaine Giakoumi, firstname.lastname@example.org, Front. Nat. Conserv. These case studies were used to critically consider how success and failure are defined and measured when assessing MPA effectiveness. (2017). Source: 5 Facts About Successful Marine Protected Areas | Sport Diver, Posted Saturday, 31 October 2015 by Culebra Snorkeling and Dive Center in Culebra Beaches, Culebra Posts & Reviews, Culebra Snorkeling, Tagged with Caribbean Snorkeling, Culebra Beach, Culebra Boating, Culebra Kayaking, Culebra Puerto Rico, Culebra Snorkeling, Diving Tip, Flamenco Beach, Underwater photography. Aquat. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science. For clarity, the color scheme reflects the different countries of our case studies. Mar. Rigorous empirical studies would then allow the provision of more specific recommendations around the design and management of MPAs planned for different objectives. There is often confusion and debate regarding what the term \"marine protected area\" really means. Considering our conclusions, we suggest the development of specific protocols for the assessment of stakeholder engagement, the role of leadership, the capacity of enforcement and compliance with MPAs objectives. email@example.com This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain, in the eastern African Region. Soc. 39, 495–517. Enforcement and compliance are linked and need to be monitored. Debating the effectiveness of marine protected areas. More specifically, based on our collective experience, we suggest the development of protocols for the assessment of the following factors: Stakeholder engagement is a dynamic process that needs to be dialogue-based and include feedback mechanisms that allow stakeholders to assess their engagement. Herein, 21 conservation scientists and practitioners (the authors of this paper) used their first-hand knowledge of 27 MPA case studies from around the world (Figure 1, Appendix S1, Table S1.1). Empirical studies around the factors that lead to the success and failure of particular objectives of MPAs (e.g., biodiversity conservation or fisheries enhancement) are needed. However, the appropriate rigor of the empirical design for such evaluations of the ecological effectiveness is often lacking (Ferraro and Hanauer, 2014). Identifying which factors contribute to their success or failure is crucial considering the international conservation targets for 2020 and the limited funds generally available for marine conservation. By Kendra Pierre-Louis. These are just a few examples of the many types of MPAs. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Currently, there are very few studies demonstrating the direct relationships between participatory governance and improved ecological metrics (Stafford, 2018, but see Di Franco et al., 2016). Sci. 75, 1166–1168. What makes a “successful” marine protected area? FR; First-ever protected area management effectiveness assessment conducted for the Barbados Marine Reserve. MPAs are expensive ventures absorbing much of the scarce resources allocated to marine conservation. More than 15,000 marine protected areas (MPAs) cover roughly 7% of the world's marine environment (Lubchenco and Grorud-Colvert, 2015; UNEP-WCMC IUCN, 2017). This includes the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the Seychelles. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally. Monitoring and evaluation of MPA effectiveness are most often limited to assessments of biological and ecological metrics, such as fish biomass (e.g., Sala and Giakoumi, 2018). doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00207.x, Gao, S. S., and Zhang, J. J. Managing Marine Protected Areas Managing Marine Protected Areas A TOOLKIT for the Western Indian Ocean 2004 PUBLISHED BY IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme in collaboration with Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (WIOMSA) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Coastal Zone Management Centre (CZMC) This … SG, JM, and MM were supported by ARC CEED, University of Queensland funding. Conservation success stories are often related to a key individual, a “leader,” who made things happen. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.022, Sala, E., and Giakoumi, S. (2018). New Marine Protected Area … ICES J. Mar. This could potentially be attributed to the implicit assumption that it is inconceivable to have a successful MPA without compliance when assessing drivers. The Caribbean Protected Areas Gateway along with the National Conservation Commission (NCC) engaged in a series of capacity development workshops on Protected Area Management … doi: 10.1038/nature21708, Keane, A., Jones, J. P. G., Edwards-Jones, G., and Milner-Gulland, E. J. (2009). Diving these highly successful marine parks shows governments there is an active interest in (and financial support for) designating swaths of ocean for conservation. (2012). Annu. Marine protected areas (MPAs) offer a range of beneﬁts for ﬁsheries, people and the marine environment. March 22, 2017. The Norwegian fisheries management regime is aiming at maximizing the long term sustainable yield of the living marine resources and at the same time protecting biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. On aggregating the individual rankings, most factors indicating success were found to also point to failure; i.e., when the presence of a factor was considered to lead to success, its absence led to failure (Figure 2, Table S1.3). Bearing in mind that most MPAs have multiple objectives, including non-biological, this highlights the need for the development and adoption of standardized effectiveness metrics, besides biological considerations, to measure factors contributing to the success or failure of MPAs to reach their objectives. This period does not necessarily correspond to the initial stage of the MPA establishment but also to later post-establishment stages which vary across our case studies depending on the age of each MPA. Social auditing, defined as a process that enables an organization to assess its performance in relation to society's requirements and expectations (Gao and Zhang, 2006), could be a valuable approach to engage stakeholders in marine conservation and promote co-operation. (2014). Science 350, 382–383. The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Some of the area b… 43, 82–91. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Three generations or categories of MPAs are distinguished: i) small areas for protection of a single species or unique marine habitat; ii) … This mismatch provided the impetus for considering these factors more critically. Iterative stakeholder assessments accompanied with updated ecological, social, and economic assessments of MPA performance based on empirical data should be incorporated into adaptive management. No-take marine reserves are the most effective protected areas in the ocean. Rossiter, J. S., and Levine, A. People. Process Manag. Francis J(1), Nilsson A, Waruinge D. Author information: (1)Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association, Zanzibar, Tanzania. For each case study, five factors were ranked based on their importance for the success or failure of the case study (for more information see Appendix S1). ICES J. Mar. Recently, there has been a shift from the individual leader at the top, to the process of leadership, which can occur throughout an organization and is not restricted to one person or group with a formal role (Schultz and Fazey, 2009). Global Environ. Social and ecological effectiveness of large marine protected areas. Sci. LMcC was supported in part by a President's International Visiting Professor Fellowship (2016VEA025) from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. ICES J. Mar. Successful prosecution of Talley’s deep-water fishing division shows need for more marine protected areas and better enforcement . SUCCESS STORIES; CONTACT US; EN. Only 1% of the 3,000 supposedly protected areas in the Mediterranean ban fishing Last modified on Thu 3 Dec 2020 02.02 EST Europe’s marine protected areas … Successful marine protected areas around the world have five features in common, according to an analysis of 87 MPAs: No-take zone; Effective enforcement; Age greater than 10 years; Size larger than 100 square kilometers; Isolation-----Check out more information on MPAs around the world: Coral Cay Conservation to Help Design Cambodia's First Marine Protected Area. Some of these lessons may be transferable between MPAs; however, some others may not as the importance of the factors determining MPA effectiveness depends on the spatial scale of the MPA (Ban et al., 2017; Giakoumi et al., 2017) as well as the socio-cultural, political, and legislative context in which the MPA is established (Gill et al., 2017). Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or in the US, the Great Lakes. Commun. Making waves: the science and politics of ocean protection. Furthermore, we recognize that the results presented herein reflect the opinion of a restricted number of conservation scientists. Interestingly, whereas some factors were identified as critical for success, their absence was not identified as a driver of failure (Table S1.3). CARIBBEAN. Therefore, specific groups, whose compliance is crucial for MPA effectiveness, e.g., small-scale fishing co-operatives and local government (Beger et al., 2004; Di Franco et al., 2016), should be targeted. Mitre Peak, the mountain at left, rises 1,692 m (5,551 ft) above the sea. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of management measures has been developed over the last several decades, including a complex variety of MPAs as defined by IUCN. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.10.006, Ban, N., Cinner, J., Adams, V., Mills, M., Almany, G., Ban, S., et al. Conversely, while some factors were identified as critical for success, their absence was not considered a driver of failure, and vice versa. 5:223. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00223. Rev. Available online at: www.piscoweb.org (Accessed January 25, 2017). doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-101813-013230, Fox, H. E., Mascia, M. B., Basurto, X., Costa, A., Glew, L., Heinemann, D., et al. In many cases, planning for multiple objectives concurrently demands trade-offs in achievement across social, economic, and ecological domains (Beger et al., 2015). Stakeholder engagement was consistently selected as the most important factor affecting MPA success; its absence was most often linked to failure. This article reviews the governance and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and the coral reefs they contain, in the eastern African Region. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsx154. Thus, identifying practices that ensure MPA effectiveness is a major issue (Pendleton et al., 2018). Moreover, factors defining the success and failure of MPAs should be assessed not only by technical experts and the relevant authorities, but also by other stakeholder groups whose compliance is critical for the successful functioning of an MPA. Successful prosecution of Talley’s deep-water fishing division shows need for more marine protected areas. Nature 506, 216–220. “Effective leadership for adaptive management,” in Adaptive Environmental Management: A Practitioners Guide, eds C. Allan, G. Stankey (Dordrecht: Springer), 295–303. However, assessments of the factors that result in the failure of MPAs to achieve their objectives using information from many regions are far less common (but see Gill et al., 2017). (2012). Available online at: www.protectedplanet.net, Keywords: conservation scientists, effectiveness assessment, failure, marine protected areas, stakeholder engagement, success, Citation: Giakoumi S, McGowan J, Mills M, Beger M, Bustamante RH, Charles A, Christie P, Fox M, Garcia-Borboroglu P, Gelcich S, Guidetti P, Mackelworth P, Maina JM, McCook L, Micheli F, Morgan LE, Mumby PJ, Reyes LM, White A, Grorud-Colvert K and Possingham HP (2018) Revisiting “Success” and “Failure” of Marine Protected Areas: A Conservation Scientist Perspective. In this study a … (2008). This was a perception but in these matters, perceptions are the reality in which government and its agencies must work. 22, 262–271. Conserv. Identifying which factors contribute to their success or failure is crucial considering the international conservation targets for 2020 and the limited funds generally available for marine conservation. (2016). Logically, compliance should have been identified as an indispensable driver of success, but in our activity, it seems to have been taken for granted and was not highlighted as a factor in driving success. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one policy instrument available that have the potential to address several of the pressures on marine biodiversity (Table 2), in particular over-fishing and exploitation and habitat destruction. There’s a great deal of difference between just establishing a protected area and monitoring it to find out whether the protection has been successful. Mar. 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