Soviet trade unions rewarded hard-working members and their families with beach vacations in Crimea and Georgia. , Following Khrushchev's controversial claim that (pure) communism could be reached "within 20 years", the new Soviet leadership responded by fostering the concept of developed socialism.  After engineering the coup, however it was the Khalq faction that took over the reins of power. According to an anonymous Soviet writer, the national liberation struggle was the cornerstone of Soviet ideology, and therefore became a cornerstone for Soviet diplomatic activity in the Third World. Since the USSR's collapse, Russia faced many problems that free market proponents in 1992 did not expect.   It meant "ideological co-existence" in the context of Soviet foreign policy, but it did not, however, entail an end to competition between capitalist and communist societies. As the economy grew, the volume of decisions facing planners in Moscow became overwhelming. The main groups of Soviet dissidents, consisting mostly of intellectuals, remained aloof, and Klebanov was soon confined to a mental institution. Together they formed a functional collective leadership. Following the death of terminally ill Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Mikhail Gorbachev to the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in March 1985. Despite this, the reform never came to fruition. Engaging in this is not just irresponsible.  When the leaders met at the Kremlin later that year, Brezhnev had concluded that it would be better to leave the domestic matters of Poland alone for the time being, reassuring the Polish delegation, headed by Kania, that the USSR would intervene only if asked to. The key factors are agreed upon, however, with blame being put on the combination of the recentralisation of the economy with the decentralisation of enterprise autonomy, creating several administrative obstacles. At this point, Western experts believed that Andropov was grooming Gorbachev as his successor. He became the first leader that spoke with the Soviet people in person.  The early hints of rapprochement collapsed, however, when Zhou accused Kosygin of Khrushchev-like behavior after Rodion Malinovsky's anti-imperialistic speech against the First World. , The Soviet Union also played a key role in the secessionist struggle against the Portuguese Empire and the struggle for black majority rule in Southern Africa. US President Reagan also actively hindered the Soviet Union's ability to sell natural gas to Europe whilst simultaneously actively working to keep gas prices low, which kept the price of Soviet oil low and further starved the Soviet Union of foreign capital. With Soviet troops still in the country, however, he was forced to bow to Soviet pressure, and released all Khalq prisoners. In many ways, Kosygin even had problems understanding why the two countries were quarreling with each other in the first place. Later, in December, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan at the behest of Khan. A huge rate of defense spending consumed large parts of the economy.  Among ethnic Russians, the divorce rate by the late 70s was alarmingly high and 1 in 4 adults lived alone. The transition period that separated the Brezhnev and Gorbachev eras resembled the former much more than the latter, although hints of reform emerged as early as 1983.  There was a fourfold growth in higher education between the 1950s and 1980s; this development was referred to as the "scientific-technological revolution". Market economists believed that the dismantling of the administrative command system in Russia would raise GDP and living standards by allocating resources more efficiently.  The largest obstacle was that it was the largest communist parties, those with highest electoral turnout, which became eurocommunists. ", William Zimmerman and Robert Axelrod, "The 'lessons' of Vietnam and Soviet foreign policy. Andropov's main goal was to avoid an open war.  As Brezhnev's health worsened, the collective leadership took an even more important role in everyday decision-making. The era ended with Brezhnev's death on 10 November 1982. Changes were needed in a hurry for 1982 had witnessed the country's worst economic performance since World War II, with real GDP growth at almost zero percent. Konstantin Chernenko, due to his close relationship with Brezhnev, had also acquired influence. , President Reagan's decision to deploy medium-range Pershing II missiles in Western Europe met with mass protests in countries such as France and West Germany, sometimes numbering 1 million people at a time. By Brezhnev's death in 1982, Soviet economic growth had, according to several historians, nearly come to a standstill. When it finally took place, the two superpower leaders established a solid rapport that boded well for the future despite Reagan's refusal to compromise on abandonment of SDI. Particularly embarrassing to the regime was the fact that even bread had become rationed, one commodity that they always prided themselves on being available. The Soviet leadership approved both countries' respective economic experiments, since it was trying to reduce its large Eastern Bloc subsidy program in the form of cheap oil and gas exports. Existing institutions were conspicuously abandoned prior to the establishment of new legal structures of the market economy such as those governing private property, overseeing financial markets, and enforcing taxation. Though Brezhnev's time in office would later be characterized as one of stability, early on, Brezhnev oversaw the replacement of half of the regional leaders and Politburo members. In the purge, Stalin ordered the execution or exile of nearly all Soviet bureaucrats over the age of 35, thereby opening up posts and offices for a younger generation of Soviets. Gromyko's removal as Foreign Minister was the most unexpected change given his decades of unflinching, faithful service compared to the unknown, inexperienced Shevardnadze. In the 70s, both side took a stance of "detente". , Brezhnev stayed in office under pressure from some of his Politburo associates, though in practice the country was not governed by Brezhnev, but instead by a collective leadership led by Suslov, Ustinov, Gromyko, and Yuri Andropov.  Numerous African leaders were influenced by Marxism, and even Leninism. The 1965 Soviet economic reform, often referred to as the "Kosygin reform", of economic management and planning was carried out between 1965 and 1971. Dissident success was mixed. 2/5/15% 1% 1980’s:%%The%The%Fall%of%the%Soviet% Union% Gorbachev%moves%toward%democracy% (1982)% • New,%younger%Soviet%leader% • Began%changing%Soviet%%%%% At the anniversary of the 1917 Revolution a few weeks later (Brezhnev's final public appearance), Western observers noted that the annual military parade featured only two new weapons and most of the equipment displayed was obsolete. With Brezhnev's health worsening, Andropov showed his Politburo colleagues that he was not afraid of Brezhnev's reprisals any more, and launched a major anti-corruption campaign. In the early 1970s, according to Anatoly Aleksandrov-Agentov, one of Brezhnev's closest advisers, Brezhnev attended a five-hour meeting to try to convince the Soviet military establishment to reduce military spending. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, a number of ex-Soviet Army personnel came forward and began discussing their involvement in UFO - Nuke incidents in that country during the Cold War era. In 1965, Kosygin initiated several reforms to decentralize the Soviet economy. While visiting Budapest in early 1983, he expressed interest in Hungary's Goulash Communism and that the sheer size of the Soviet economy made strict top-down planning impractical. When Hussein visited the Soviet Union, he managed to get a trade agreement and a treaty of friendship. 1961 - Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned orbital flight. The Soviet Union, ... Yeltsin took over what remained of the Soviet government, including the Moscow Kremlin. In both cases, Brezhnev was not the one pushing hardest for a possible armed intervention. Members acted in optimism, and believed a policy of stabilization would prove to the world, according to Robert Service, the "superiority of communism". 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